Latest Articles, Garmann-Johnsen et al;


PUBLICATIONS, PEER-REVIEWED and PROJECT REPORTS Including presentations (with org. affiliation) – Most can be found on Google Scholar

2020 (so far…)

Garmann-Johnsen, N.F., Helmersen, M. and Eikebrokk, T.R., 2020. Employee-driven Digitalization in Healthcare: Codesigning Services that Deliver. Health Policy and Technology.



eTELEMED (proceedings, 2019): Enabling Employee Co-Creation in eHealth – Propositions for a Methodology.

Health Policy and Technology Journal (work in progress) Employee-driven Digitalization in Healthcare: Codesigning Services that Work

2018 and earlier (reg. in Cristin)

  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Gamperiene, Migle.

(01) Agder Living Lab – Følgeforskningsrapport. : Agderforskning 2018 119 p. NORCE – Norwegian Research Centre AS(1-2018)


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Helmersen, Migle; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

Achieving Good Worklife Ergonomics in eHealth Co-Creation – The ‘What’, the ‘Why’ and the ‘How’. International Journal on Advances in Life Sciences 2018 ;Volume 10.(3)


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Helmersen, Migle; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

Digital Transformation in Healthcare: Enabling Employee Co-Creation through Web 2.0. American Conference on Information Systems – AMCIS – 2018; 2018-08-16 – 2018-08-18


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Helmersen, Migle; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

Worklife Ergonomics in Digital Co-Creation: The ‘What’, the ‘Why’and the ‘How’. European Journal of Workplace Innovation 2018 ;Volume 4.(1)


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Helmersen, Migle; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

Worklife Ergonomics in eHealth Co-Creation Governance “You can’t manage what you don’t measure”. eTELEMED 2018 : The Tenth International Conference on eHealth, Telemedicine, and Social Medicine; 2018-03-25 – 2018-05-29



  1. Eikebrokk, Tom Roar; Nilsen, Etty Ragnhild; Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik.

Exploring the role of process orientation in healthcare service innovation: the case of digital night surveillance.. I: The 23rd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS). Association for Information Systems 2017 ISBN 978-0-9966831-4-2. p. –


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

(04) Dynamic capabilities in e-health innovation: Implications for policies. Health Policy and Technology 2017 ;Volume 6.(3) p. 292-301


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Hellang, Øyvind.

Velferdsobligasjoner Velferdsobligasjoner som finansieringsmodell for sosialt arbeid. Agder: Agderforskning 2017 36 p. NORCE – Norwegian Research Centre AS(02-2017)


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Martinez, Santiago.

(05) Roadmap for Collaborative eHealth Service Architectures for Homecare.. eTELEMED 2017; 2017-03-17 – 2017-03-22



  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

(06) Capabilities for e-Health Collaboration; a Study of Inter-municipal Networks in Norway. I: AMCIS 2016 Proceedings, San Diego CA, August 11-14, 2016. Association for Information Systems 2016 ISBN 978-0-9966831-2-8. p. –



  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik.

(In dissertation 07-|0) What seems to be the problem?-A study of connections between national contexts and regional e-health strategies. Health Policy and Technology 2015 ;Volume 4.(2) p. 144-155



  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik.

Service robotics in hospitals, a topic for information systems research?. ICIS 2014; 2014-12-14 – 2014-12-17


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

(In dissertation 07-10) Critical Success Factors for Inter-Organizational Process Collaboration in eHealth. I: eTELEMED 2014 Conference proceedings. International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA) 2014 ISBN 9781632662491.


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

Critical Success Factors for Inter-Organizational Process Collaboration in eHealth. eTELEMED 2014 The Sixth International Conference on eHealth, Telemedicine, and Social Medicine; 2014-03-23 – 2014-03-27


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

The role of collaborative BPM for process improvement in e-health. eTELEMED; 2014-03-23 – 2014-03-27


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Eikebrokk, Tom Roar.

Theoretical perspectives on success with BPM in e-health. Med-e-Tel; 2014-04-09 – 2014-04-11


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Hellang, Øyvind.

(In dissertation 07-10) Collaborative process modelling and -evaluation in e-health. I: Scandinavian Conference on Health Informatics; August 22; 2014; Grimstad; Norway. Linköping University Electronic Press 2014 ISBN 978-91-7519-241-3. p. 23-30


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Mettler, Tobias; Sprenger, Michaela.

(In dissertation 07-10) Service Robotics in Healthcare: A Perspective for Information Systems Researchers?. ICIS 2014; 2014-12-14 – 2014-12-17


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik; Sprenger, Michaela; Mettler, Tobias.

Service Robotics in Healthcare: A Perspective for Information Systems Researchers?. I: ICIS 2014 Proceedings. Association for Information Systems 2014 ISBN 978-0-615-15788-7. p. –



  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik.

CBPM og eHelse. Forsekrgruppemøte, ehelsesenteret; 2013-11-23 – 2013-11-23


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik.

Prosessinnovasjon og eHelse. ehelse-senteret, forskergruppe; 2013-03-01 – 2013-03-01


  1. Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik.

Residing Care. Go Mobile AS 2013


Other, N F Garmann-Johnsen fater master-studies:

  1. Informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi, design research:

– ”OnBoard WLAN – Technical challenges” – Paper publisert ifbm Transnav-konferansen 2009 (Gdynia, Polen) togehter with PhD-kand. Liping Mu, UiA


Highlight: An update of the main model in this Journal article;

Dynamic capabilities in e-health innovation: Implications for policies



To mitigate the effect of caregiver shortage, collaborative networks in Norwegian municipalities are exploring the possibilities provided by e-health and welfare technologies. However, extracting benefits from such technologies depends on many factors.


In this study, an extensive literature review is performed to compare e-health and other sectors in terms of the critical success factors in collaborative business process management. Using the dynamic capabilities view as a general theoretical lens, and a process orientation framework for operationalization, these factors are then conceptualized and validated in a cross-sectional study of cases in the Norwegian municipal e-health sector.


The study contributes to e-health research by identifying the key factors that influence performance. These factors are significantly driven by government policies and regulations. Our findings challenge the assumption that welfare technology networks can be built from the bottom up without government intervention. Regulatory interventions are needed, to obtain process performance metrics and foster viable, long-term business models for the participating institutions.


The findings have an impact on research and practice, especially in local public management, for predicting and prescribing future development in this context. There are indications of significant gaps in government policies and regulations. Further research should examine whether and how these findings transcend the chosen context.

Collaboration on Business Process Management

On November the 27th 2015 I successfully defended my doctoral dissertation:

The case: CBPM in E-Health
Exploring and Modelling the Role of Inter-Organizational Coordination and Collaborative Business Process Management in E-health Innovation

Synopsis: Better planning and structure of information systems will improve cooperation required to adopt care technology.

The thesis proposes several new management concepts that can achieve this. By using “collaborative Business Process Management” (CBPM) one can get a systematic focus on work processes from mapping to continuous improvement. This field is little explored in health, so this research will be particularly useful for municipal leaders to realize the important role of municipalities in the Norwegian Coordination Reform. Furthermore CBPM be of interest to politicians, system and service providers, patients and patient groups.

Thesis main contribution is the practical methods proposed. An example is the explanation of why senior management in municipalities needs to be stronger involved in the development of enterprise architecture. Municipal leadership needs more expertise in the development of information and, CBPM, process modeling, technology adoption and service development. The dissertation shows examples of related methodologies ITIL, PRINCE2 or Scrum. It is still necessary flexibility in public governance, but agility must be coordinated in a smarter way. New management concepts can contribute to this by improving inter-municipal cooperation by better methods for coordinating projects and resource use.

To help achieve this in practice, the thesis proposes that academia meets the need for expertise both with more personalised courses and continuing research on enterprise architecture and improvement of system platforms and technical infrastructure. In addition, the government must facilitate the process innovations and providing municipalities and private sector incentives that ensure sustainable investment in care technology.

Link to the dissertation

N. Garmann-Johnsen, PhD

Hvor er vi nå frem mot COP i Paris, desember

Charlotte Synnøve's climate blog

Paris-2015Jeg kommer til å dedikere en del plass på denne bloggen om COP relatert innhold i tiden fremover, og høyst sannsynlig også lime inn innlegg her som jeg gjesteblogger for andre om under forhandlingene i Paris.

Veldig kort introduksjon til emne – verdens ledere, miljøorganisasjoner, sivilsamfunn og andre samles til et nytt stort klimatoppmøte i Paris kalt COP 21 – Conference of the Parties. (Vi har i Spire laget en “Klimaforhandlingene på 1-2-3 den siste tiden, så når den er publisert på nett vil jeg vidreformidle den her) På dette årets COP er det lagt opp til å komme frem til en avtale, basert på en forhandlingstekst som fortsatt kuttes i, men som er ferdig skrevet. Dette skal legge grunnlaget for en internasjonal klimaavtale som skal gjelde i årene 2020-2030. Ved tidligere forhandlinger der man har forsøkt å komme frem til en avtale har det blitt forhandlet om et felles…

View original post 343 more words

Successful self-management: “I finally beat procrastination”


The entries on kinesthetic, visual, auditory and read-and-write learning are coming along great, but while I finish my research on those topics I just wanted to share what I think is my first real finding on this blog. When you do a lot of research, it becomes easy to just regurgitate other peoples’ ideas. But this time, I’ve finally figured out a method to beat my own procrastination, in a way that I think can be of use to a lot of you.

I really enjoy listening to podcasts and audiobooks. Some people are more into listening to music, so I suggest doing what you like, whether it is listening to the radio or your favourite playlist, as long as it leaves you able to move about freely while being able to use your hands. Many people struggle to leave their houses or apartments to go for a jog…

View original post 590 more words

Senior management that lacks IT qualifications challenges digitalisation of public sector

Note from IKT Agder IKS ‘week 2015-02-03. Niels F. Garmann-Johnsen, research fellow


One is left with a picture of a sector with a very immature when it comes to digitization. On the other side there are some good examples sometimes.

But one gets struck by how little that really is left of local democracy (It must revolve around localization debates); Most is really local management of national standardized services, such as education and care.

The idea and the models for benefit/value realization has caught on, ref the KommITs “cookbook” that Leif S. Flak University of Agder, Institute for Information Systems, has contributed to, was well known in the auditorium.


Ill.: Poster from the seminar


Kjetil Nyhus (CEO, IKT Agder, Joint municipal IT company):

Digitization in the public sector is still in the start-up phase. Challenges include privacy and ethics. IKT Agder s projects include working with basic structure lookup via ‘My ID’ and e-Health: the Night surveillance project. We work in KS [The Municipalities joint Organization] KommIT [projects] recommendations regarding [system] architecture. IKT Agder is currently working on a municipal portal for business.

Paul Chaffey (Undersecretary, Norway’s Municipal and Modernization ministry):

The ministry work a lot with task distribution between state and municipality. Is this changing?

One will avoid micromanagement from the ministry by having:

– Fewer and clearer goals

– Based on trust management

– Achieve interaction across

Award Letter from department to agencies had previously book size and contained activity / process description. Such cascaded down and begs reporting.

Instead, one should delegate responsibility for organizing locally e.g. to hospitals.

The goals drown in formalities.

Leaders must have IT (IS) – competence:

– To take decisions

– Could withdraw benefits and not just do the same as before, but with technology.

– Those who know the challenges must do things easier, and locally

– Everything that is communicated to the public must be written in a clear language.

The state will reduce requirements to subcontractors. One announced an idea competition to all agencies and received 1300 proposals for the removal of ‘time thieves’. E.g. avoid transcript of paper to the Internet.

Not all government IT projects are failures:


– NAV pension portal

– eDag – A Message (simplification of reporting employer relationship, once per month.)

– Digital mailbox for all citizens; Medical test results, the State Collection Agency etc.

Collaboration Stat municipality becomes important in the future. One must complete:

– Solution components

– Register components (population register, tax)

– Stimulate joint municipal ICT solutions e.g. KS’ SvarUt

– Local business systems

– Sharing Culture instead of “Not invented here”

Government’s main role is the development of common components [Digital Information Infrastructures].

When it comes to benefits realization in bodies, e.g. NAV, it has perhaps been a degree of sales from system integrators and consultants, and during communication of interfacial problems. It has led to more expensive projects than anticipated and weakened confidence.

About municipality merging: Municipal responsibilities have been growing rapidly, from a statutory right to nursery, to extended schooling, interaction reform and general health, while the structure has stood still. In the future, perhaps the responsible for high school will end up in municipalities.

(The completely male dominated) panel discussion:

Paul Chaffey (Undersecretary), Espen Sjøholt, Evry (ICT consultants), Aleksander Øynes, KS KommIT, Martin Seyffarth, CIO, county authorities Aust-Agder, Harald Danielsen, Councilman Arendal, Hans Antonsen, Mayor, Grimstad, led by Fredrik Sissener, Councillor, Arendal, The Conservative party [Høyre].

KommIT is a project, which runs through 2015. Should there be evaluated. Danielsen believed that digitization is a diffuse political order: Everything should be better and cheaper. He called for funds to build expertise. Sjøholt believed that digitization may provide an industrial revolution in services, one must change the approach to traditional procedures. With rule-based proceedings much can be automated. Rule-based rights can come by itself, without procedural at all. What good is it writing somebody into a school?

For AA county this is about all about behaviour change. Later you remove FTEs through natural attrition.

Sissener asked what challenges are, by digitizing, why is it difficult:


– The public sector has no market as “penalties” the one who makes something no one wants

– 3 levels of government creates confusion

– Senior management involvement often lacking

– Senior management lacks qualifications

Many executives report that the leadership role was different than they thought. What details should I care about? What should I leave to others? Many decision-streams is too random.

Antonsen: There is still a desire for human contact, to avoid ‘robotics’ and loneliness. He spoke negatively about electronic ballots. (This was opposed by others; Øynes who didn’t see the point of going to a cubicle to do something you can do just as well at home.)

As an example of what is done above Antonsen mentioned Municipal IT/services support that are now collected for three municipalities (Arendal, Grimstad, Froland); document receipt, payroll and finance.

Danielsen called for common standards to avoid “lock in” from suppliers, a common “plug” to plug in new services. He said contact with relatives (Nearest) in connection with care matters; In Arendal there may be 20.-30,000 next-of-kin spread across the country. People expect dialogue. At the same time electronic dialogue needs to be properly archived.

Also the county (Seyffarth) missed common standards. Trust is also a prerequisite for things to work, e.g. between politicians and management.

Evry / Sjøholt believed that lack of funds for investments in municipalities is a problem. There is also a certain technology fear. One should think for oneself, not just copy the neighbour. What are the organisational consequences?

Øynes believed that many gaped over too much; one should take lesser steps …

Danielsen believed that increased ICT expenses often eats up the winnings. One must cut positions. Arendal cut e. g. ten positions in community nursing.

Antonsen thought that gains can also be taken out as increased quality. One has a Day of Innovation in Grimstad Municipality where people come together and brain-storms about business.

Consensus seems to be that one must achieve both cheaper and higher quality services simultaneously.

Else Skjellum:

Conditions that complicates projects:

  1. a) many systems involved in behind-edge
  2. b) talk with users, not just display data, involves process change
  3. c) personal services vs. services for all
  4. d) interaction with other businesses

Espen Sjøholt:

Only twelve to thirteen percent of municipalities have ever asked residents about what they wanted and in what form, before they went ahead and made new digital services. [They should have read (Garmann-Johnsen & Hellang, 2014) see footnote]

As examples he mentioned and Copenhagen municipality citizen service.


During the afternoon there was an increased amount of repetitions of the score that was said in the panel discussion. Per Kr. Vareide’s (Councilman, Grimstad) lecture was retrospectively and in chat form. Olav Grendstad’s satirical chat about the Aust-Agder – Vest-Agder county border was fun, and highlights the paradox in such divisions.

Footnote on why you should ask all types of stakeholders upfront, and not assume anything:


Garmann-Johnsen, Niels Frederik, & Hellang, Øyvind. (2014). Collaborative Process Modelling and Evaluation in E-health. Paper presented at the Scandinavian Health Informatics, Grimstad.

Ex-ante (Pre-) Evaluation of New E-Health Initiatives and Service Designs

E-health innovations involves high risk of doing the wrong investments. Capital and time can be consumed following blind alleys. How can this be prevented, and the most useful and efficient technology for the task at hand be chosen? A framework for multi-stakeholder evaluation of new e-health technologies is devised. Also, a review of the use of different methods for visualising process and service design, that can accommodate a dialog between users and professionals alike about e-health innovations is reported here.


Critical Success Factors for Collaborative Business Process Management

What are the critical business process management factors at play when trying to succeed with e-health innovations in inter-organisational networks?

The published article is now available here:

Work in progress is performed on analysing, validating and detailing these factors, in the e-health areas and other sectors of society.

More is to come 😉